Observations and Measurements (O&M) is an International Standard which describes a theoretical scheme encoding for observations, and for traits engaged in sampling when making observations. While the O&M standard was built up in the context of geographic information systems, the model is derived from generic patterns proposed by Fowler and Odell, and is not restricted to spatial information. O&M is one of the core standards in the OGC Sensor Web Enablement suite, offering the response model for Sensor Observation Service (SOS).
O&M identifies a core set of properties for an observation:
- feature of interest
- observed property
- procedure - the instrument, algorithm or process used (which may be described using SensorML)
- phenomenon time - the real-world time associated with the result
- result time - the time when the result was generated
- valid time - the period during which the result may be used